Your browser appears to have cookies disabled. For the best experience of this website, please enable cookies in your browser. More news. Joe Giddings and Seb Laan Lomas explain why the UK government urgently needs to catch up with leading thinkers at home and abroad. More opinion. With the fall of the Roman Empire the knowledge of concrete making was largely lost until the late s when lime concrete was rediscovered in the uk.
Antique and modern trusses are distinguished and modern laminated beams and I-truss beams and wood joists are discussed.
Common wood structure framing methods include the techniques described below, arranged alphabetically, not by age. Arkansas framing system : 2x6 wall studs are spaced 24' on center, a spacing that permitted installation of more wall insulation volume than provide by conventional 2x4 wall studs.
The Arkansas building framing method became popular in North America following the 's arab oil embargo and addressed concern for high energy costs. Tall wall studs run from the sill plate atop the foundation wall to the top plate below the building rafters.
Wall studs and first floor joists rest on the building sill plates flat wood members set atop the building foundation. The wall studs extend from the first floor sill to a height sufficient to frame both the first and second floor walls. First floor joists and second floor joists are framed by nailing to these tall wall studs at the appropriate heights. Rafters attach to the top plate of the building walls.
Ceiling joists for the top floor are nailed to the sides of the balloon-framed wall studs just as the floor joists were nailed below. See Log Home Guide. Modular construction - present was first provided on a large scale with Sears Kit homes that were distributed from about to o0.
Feb 02, An expert like a builder or a engineer can tell an approximate age but its hard to determine the true and specific age of the same. Carbon . Unfortunately concrete is opaque, preventing its dating by the very distinctive patented reinforcement within, unless the concrete cover is broken away. One visible exception is the use of expanded metal as soffit reinforcement from until the Second World War. There are a number of ways to date into a career in studying age dating. Typically, a Master's Degree in chemistry is required because of the concrete lab work. Increasingly though, students are tell about the principles of radiocarbon dates in age, palaeontology and brick science degrees and can combine cross-disciplinary studies.
Some modern modular homes built in the U. That is no longer the case.
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Since at least the 's a modular home is constructed in a factory of one or more sections which are carried to the building site on a trailer photo above left and lifted by a crane to be set upon a foundation which has been prepared ahead of time. Modular homes can be quite large, involving four or quite a few more individual sections which are lifted and "set" into place at the site photo at left.
Some manufacturers provide custom architectural services and can deliver unique, but factory-built homes in sections. Panelized construction : floor and wall panels constructed in a factory are delivered to and assembled at the building site.
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Panels may be conventionally-framed stud walls in modular sections or structural panels may be constructed of a sandwich of OSB oriented strand boar plywood, or wafer board on either side of solid foam board insulation. Panelized construction makes use of wall, floor, ceiling or roof "panels" which have been framed off-site and brought to the site by truck.
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Panels are lifted into place by crane and fastened together on a foundation, and possibly a framed-in floor which have been prepared before the panels arrive. Some framing panels make use of special materials, such as plywood and foam roof panels for insulated cathedral ceilings. Plank houses were constructed entirely of sawn planks and without the use of larger dimensioned 2x lumber.
Some of the plank houses we've inspected were made from scraps or salvaged lumber such as a home in Dutchess County New York that was constructed from packing crate wood.
Larger collections of plank houses were built as company housing in the mining or railroad industries. A floor is constructed atop of the building foundation, forming the first "platform", using the platform as a working surface.
Interior plywood is generally glued with urea formaldehyde based glues; exterior plywood and marine plywood use phenolic formaldehyde glues and are water resistant. The cross-grain construction combined with glue produces a strong, uniform material that is used for both enclosure and for structural stiffness in frame construction of building walls and roofs.
The properties of plywood, including its tolerance to weather exposure marine plywood depend on the glues and finishes used.
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Both softwood and hardwoods are used in plywoods, and fine wood veneer finishes are also available for furniture use. Timber frame construction initially used hand hewn beams, later manually or mechanically sawn beams cut by a pit saw. Timber framing using post and beam construction with mortise and tenon joint connections was used in Europe for at least years before it was first employed in North America.
By a typical timber frame building used multiple bents and girt beams, may have been more than one story tall, and included an exterior made of horsehair-reinforced cement stuccoed over hand-split lath. Our photo above shows an 18th century Norwegian timber frame building using brick infill and stucco to complete the wall enclosure. Where there are special safety or maintenance concerns for certain systems we cite those as well. At above left we show a photograph of an "octopus heating furnace", originally coal fired, usually by now if still in use converted to natural gas fuel.
These octopus furnaces, also called "gravity heating systems" provided heat by natural convection, hot air rising into the building from the top of the furnace where it was delivered to the building first floor through a wood or iron grate, or perhaps delivered through metal ducts. The original installation usually supplied heat to a home through a central grate in the first floor of the building from where warm air might rise to upper floors.
Later versions or modified original systems added ducts to individual rooms, sometimes still only on the first floor of the building. These furnaces are the ancestor of modern forced hot air heating systems. Our photo at left shows a pre brick wall lining used as insulation and as a wind or draft block. Brick nogging can determine the probable age for the home. Houses built between an or perhaps earlier may have brick-lined walls. I have found brick nogging in the walls of a Poughkeepsie NY home.
A close observation of the type of fasteners used in a building is one of the most popular means of estimating its age. Hand wrought nails, machine cut nails, modern round "wire" nails and other details offer considerable information about the time of original construction of a building as well as of the time of modifications to the structure.
An examination of nails and fasteners and other building hardware is a complimentary effort useful in determining the age of a building and its components. The window latch shown in our photo above left dates from the Justin Morrill Smith Historic house in Vermont. Above is door hardware from the Suffolk Reserves house dating from Notice in both the door hardware photo above and that shown below that unlike contemporary passage door locksets, the knob setback distance from the door edge is considerably greater.
The photos shows the door lock hardware and the folding-down interior turn knob and key opening. On the other side of this door was a small keyhole and a white ceramic door knob. There are several generations of plaster and lath, plaster board, and drywall which have been used in buildings. We name and illustrate these and discuss their periods of use below as an aid in finding out how old a building is and tracing its history.
Details about Beaver-board and Upson Board, a wood fiber product used as an inexpensive interior wall covering and draft blocker from about are provided.
On the exposed side this wood fiberboard product was usually painted and its joints covered with wood lath or other trim. In some applications it was covered with wallpaper.
In some homes it was later covered with drywall to provide a more fire-resistant surface. As late as the 's Upson Board was used in prefabricated houses and exterior building sheathing and in recreational vehicles.
Apr 29, This technique shows how to antique concrete to look aged as I am not a fan of very colourful 'plastic-looking' finishes. It is super simple and requires no special painting skills, just a bit of paint. Go grab some concrete The Paint and Supplies. Oct 14, Ron (Structural) 9 Oct 09 No way to accurately determine the age of concrete. There are several things that you can do to infer the age of the concrete, but it requires quite of bit of information about the exposure, the air quality/conditions, the compressive strength, amount of unhydrated cement, air content, etc. Jul 01, semi-transparent concrete stain (1 for base color, 1 to darken the creases/folds of your object), mineral spirits (if you buy oil-based stain), sea sponge, old paint brush, rags, drop cloth to put your project on while you work, gloves to protect your hands from the stain, squirt bottle filled with plain water, old jar with lid to mix the stain in/store it if you have leftovers.
Upson purchased the Beaver Board plant from CertainTeed in Upson began its decline in the 's and closed inopening later that year as Niagara Fiberboard.
Often old gas lines have been disconnected entirely and sometimes they have been re-used to route electrical wiring to new light fixtures or to gaslight fixtures which have been converted to electric. Don't assume that an old gas fixture or valve on a wall or found in a fireplace are inactive.
We turned-on and lit this fixture which gave a bright surprise to everyone. Watch out for "live gas" connections to supposedly abandoned gas piping and don't trust " Plumbing fixtures and piping materials offer considerable age in dating a building, including easy clues such as the presence of a date of manufacture stamped into many toilet tanks to the periods of use of types of water supply piping lead, galvanized steel, black iron pipe, copper, plastic piping and building drain piping lead, cast iron, copper, plastic, clay.
So for a year-old, the upper age limit would be 34 (17 * 2). With some quick math, the rule provides a minimum and maximum partner age based on your actual age that, if you choose to follow it. Mar 03, Hose down the new concrete and apply a mix of 2 parts water to one part muriatic acid. Scrub it with an acid brush and etch the "new" film from the surface. Rinse with a hose. It will help some and mother nature will do the rest over the next year or so. Jul 17, The history of concrete blocks dates back to ancient Greece and Rome, although they were not manufactured commercially until the early 20th century. Dating old brick and block is not a precise science, but there are a few things to look for.
Joined: Mar 18, Oddometer: 12, Location: north of seattle. This is the kind of stuff you talk about ahead of time. Adios PantalonesMar 2, Go get a bunch of cheap azz Maxwell house and brew it up.
Half FastMar 2, Hose down the new concrete and apply a mix of 2 parts water to one part muriatic acid. Scrub it with an acid brush and etch the "new" film from the surface. Rinse with a hose. It will help some and mother nature will do the rest over the next year or so. BillsRMar 2, Big Bir Mar 3, I know someone dropped an automotive battery on my concrete pad and split the case, nice white concrete turned a tanish brown color in that spot only.
Half FastMar 3, You must log in or sign up to reply here. Show Ignored Content. Those of Truscon and Considiere were widely used, but the Hennibique system was most popular, and was used in 35, buildings and other structures. Hennibique's design method for reinforced concrete rc floor beams patented in was based on plain mild steel round bars with fish-tailed ends, and distinctive stirrups of flat strip. The first uk Hennibique rc building was the now-demolished Weavers Mill in Swansea.
An extant example is the Royal Liver Building in Liverpool, then the tallest concrete building in the world at 94m including its Liver birds.
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It was designed by the architect W Aubrey Thomas, with an entirely reinforced concrete frame. Many more modest Hennibique buildings survive today, such as the Kings College Hospital in London, designed in a restrained Neo-Georgian style by the architect, William Pite.
To the untrained eye, most of these early rc concrete buildings could be mistaken for concrete cased steel-framed buildings of the period. Unfortunately concrete is opaque, preventing its dating by the very distinctive patented reinforcement within, unless the concrete cover is broken away.
One visible exception is the use of expanded metal as soffit reinforcement from until the Second World War. Inthe lcc introduced the first British reinforced concrete regulations, which put an acceptable method of designing reinforced concrete into the public domain.
Age dating concrete
Thus proprietary patented systems could be circumvented, and their era drew to a gradual close. After the First World War, rc-framed buildings which aped their steel counterparts, continued to be built but concrete's freedom of form also enabled shells, arches and spirals to be created. Flat slabs were first used in the uk in the early s, thanks to design development in the usa and mainland Europe.
Guidance on flat slabs was included in the first British code of practice for reinforced concrete in The code also noted the developments in concrete materials, including high alumina cement hac first distributed in the uk by Lafarge in After the Second World War hac was more widely used because of its rapid- hardening qualities, for the manufacture of precast and prestressed components. It was discredited in by roof beams which collapsed at Sir John Cass School in Stepney, but it is still manufactured today for non-structural uses.
As well as developments in cement in the s, coarse aggregates for making lightweight concrete were also changing. Supplies of clinker were becoming scarcer, and other lightweight aggregates were being developed which came into volume use from onwards, including Aglite, Leca, and latterly Lytag.
They act as lightweight replacements for stones in the concrete mix, and do not have the problematic acidity of clinker. During the Second World War, half a million houses were totally lost due to bombing, and another three and a half million houses were damaged; one third of the total stock.
Britain ended the war virtually bankrupt with an enormous national debt. There was a great shortage of building materials, and problems with distributing whatever there was. The government aimed to buil permanent dwellings per year, but only manage from August to December ByBritain was still short of 1. New forms and methods of construction were needed to make available materials go further, and faster.
Concrete played its part.
At first reinforcing steel was rationed, but pre-stressing strand was not. This encouraged the use of pre-stressed concrete, and no-fines mass concrete construction.