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Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Plos one , 13 Jan , 11 1 : e DOI: Conceived and designed the experiments: AP. Wrote the paper: AP. The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab Adansonia za specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part.

For the most common use of "Baobab", see Adansonia digitata.

The article discloses the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating results of the Big Reniala of Isosa, which is a massive Grandidier baobab (Adansonia grandidieri Baill.) of Madagascar. Radiocarbon dating has provided data on a few individuals of A. digitata. The Panke baobab in Zimbabwe was some 2, years old when it died in , making it the oldest angiosperm ever documented, and two other trees - Dorslandboom in Namibia and Glencoe in South Africa - were estimated to be approximately 2, years old. The paper discloses the radiocarbon investigation results of the Luna tree, a representative African baobab from Venetia Limpopo Nature Reserve, South Africa. Several wood samples collected from deep incisions in the trunk were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. The age sequence of segments extracted from the.

Adansonia digitata. Adansonia gregorii. Adansonia digitata leaf. United States Department of Agriculture.

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Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 14 January Missouri Botanical Garden. Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved 25 September Springer Verlag.

The Atlantic. Retrieved 12 June The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 8 January Fire history of a giant African baobab evinced by radiocarbon dating. Archived 22 October at the Wayback Machine Radiocarbon 52 2- Nature Plants 4: - DOI: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 8 June A re-evaluation of Adansonia kilima. Syst Biol. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United State Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 24 September Heritage Trees of Penang.

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Penang: Areca Books. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 15 September Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants.

Archived from the original on 11 March EC No. Authorised July ". UK Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 3 June Medical News Today. Retrieved 20 June Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Retrieved 29 September GRN ".

US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 3 May Adansonia grandidieri Baill. Mkamilo Eds. Adansonia za Baill. BaobabAdansonia digitata L. For obtaining single age values, we derived a mean cal age of each segment from the selected range marked in bold. Ages and errors were rounded to the nearest 5 years. With two exceptions AZA-3d and AZA-3eradiocarbon dates of segments increase with the distance from the sampling point, i. These exceptions are very significant and will be discussed later.

We also dated a segment close to the pith of the largest stem of the Big cistern za BCZ. Consequently, for samples collected from normal cavities, ages should decrease continuously from the cavity walls toward the outer part of the stem [ 179112728 ]. Nevertheless, for samples collected from the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro, namely AZA-2 and AZA-3, we found that ages of dated segments increase with the depth in the wood.

Furthermore, for the longest cavity sample AZA-3, ages increase from the cavity walls up to a certain distance into the wood located at around 0. We identified for the first time the same major anomaly of the age sequences of cavity samples dated by radiocarbon in our research of large and old A. The only reasonable explanation for this finding is that such cavities are in fact natural empty spaces, which were never filled with wood, between several fused stems disposed in a closed ring-shaped structure.

We named them false cavities [ 1128 ]. In all these cases, the age sequence of samples collected from inner cavities exhibits a continuous increase from the cavity walls up to a certain distance into the wood, which corresponds to an area of maximum age. In a very limited number of cases, by using long increment borers, we were able to penetrate from the cavity walls deeper in the wood than the point of maximum age; in this area, the age values decrease continuously toward the exterior [ 1128 ].

The cavity sample AZA-3, which has a continuous length of 0. The opposite sample AZA, which was collected from the outer part in the opposite direction, has also a continuous length of 0. As expected, the age values increase from the outer bark 0 m with the distance into the wood, via the segments AZAa 0.

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The distance between the cavity wall and the outer part, i. In this special case, segments extracted from two samples, collected in opposite directions, allow to establish a complete age sequence from the cavity wall to the corresponding outer part of the stem in forward and backward directions, see Table 2. The point of maximum age is located at ca. We also dated 2 segments from the second longest cavity sample AZA-2, which exhibit the same increase from the sampling point with the depth in the wood.

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In this case, as compared to the thickness of the cavity walls in this area 1. The age sequence of the cavity samples demonstrates that Anzapalivoro possesses a closed ring-shaped structure with an accessible false cavity inside, identical to that identified by us previously for several large and old A.

All baobabs with ring-shaped structures are multi-stemmed. The stems describe at ground level a circle or an ellipse with an empty space inside. These stems are pointed upward and are fused almost perfectly, closing a false inner cavity. The ring-shaped structures are formed progressively and close over time, as they consist of stems which typically have different ages. The stems grow faster along the outer circumference and each develops a kind of crescent shape, which is necessary for fusing.

As we have mentioned, false cavities are natural empty spaces between the fused stems that build a closed ring-shaped structure. The thickness of the fused stems, that define the false cavity walls, is typically between 1. Unlike normal cavities, formed by wood removal, which have usually irregular shapes and are not very tall, false cavities have more regular shapes, their lower part located at ground level, are larger, taller and covered by bark. The first noticeable difference between false and normal cavities is the presence or absence of the bark inside the cavity.

While normal cavities become larger over time due to continuous decay, false cavities tend to become smaller due to stem growth [ 1128 ]. This general description of the closed ring-shaped structure with a false cavity inside, provided by us for A.

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An inspection of its trunk, fusion lines, canopy, cavity and especially the radiocarbon dating results, as will be shown further, indicate that Anzapalivoro consists of 5 fused stems. Thus, the quasi-complete ring is formed by 5 fused stems, which close a large and very tall false cavity.

The width of the cavity walls vary between 1. The relatively small entrance to the false cavity will close probably over the next decades.

Thus, A. On the other hand, the Big cistern za has an obvious cluster structure, which is composed of 4 partially fused stems.

For Anzapalivoro, the analysis of the oldest dated segments of the 3 cavity samples allows us to estimate the ages of the corresponding stems, which are identical to the so-called points of maximum age in the sampling direction located between the cavity walls and the outer part. Given that the measured or extrapolated ages in the points of maximum ages of the cavity samples are different, we conclude that the 3 samples originate from 3 different stems, which were labelled I, II and III Fig 7.

For the longest cavity sample AZA-3 0. According to these results, the age of stem III should be close to - yr. Thus, the point of maximum age is located at ca. These values correspond to the following ratios for the point of maximum age pma : distance from cavity wall to pma vs. For the cavity sample AZA-2 0. If we use the ratios found for sample AZA-3, the point of maximum age must be positioned at a distance of ca.

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In a conservative estimate, by taking into account growth rates and the decrease of growth with age, the age of stem II from which sample AZA-2 originates is close to yr.

The fact that the sample length was of only 0.

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The innermost segment of the shortest sample AZA-1 0. The width of the cavity wall in the sampling point AZA-1 is 1.

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By using the same ratios, the point of maximum age is located at 0. According to these values and considering the age of segment AZA-1a as well, we estimate that in the point of maximum age, which is missing due to another hollow in the cavity wall, the age of stem I is around - yr, i.

Anzapalivoro has two more stems, that define the two sides of the cavity corridor, which were labelled IV and V Fig 7. The ring is not yet completely closed, which allows for the presence of the cavity entrance and of the corridor.

Due to the low width and height of the corridor, it was not possible to handle the increment borer for collecting samples from these stems. However, it is very probable that stems IV and V are the youngest ones. In a rough estimate, their ages would be around yr.

One should also mention that both the cavity entrance and the corridor will close over several decades; therefore, the ring will be completely closed.

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According to this value, Anzapalivoro has started growing around ad The oldest stem I, followed immediately by stem II, represent the starting area of the ring.

The 5 stems of Anzapalivoro belong to three different generations. We also dated the outermost segments of samples AZA-2 and AZA, which were adjacent to the cavity bark and to the bark of the outer part. The dating results provide negative radiocarbon dates, which are difficult to be interpreted and implies the use of Post Bomb calibration curves that yield very young calibrated ages. That is why these results have not been included in Table 1. They suggest that even the oldest stems of Anzapalivoro continue their growth both toward the cavity and toward the outer part.

Taking into account all described cts, we consider that the upper age limit of the A. As previously noted, Anzapalivoro has a special architecture with a high symmetry, namely a closed ring-shaped structure, which is very suitable for baobabs to reach old ages.

The different stems which build this structure grow from an area of maximum age which consists of all points of maximum age toward the interior and the exterior, building over time a closed or quasi-closed ring with a false cavity inside.

By using the ages of segments extracted from the opposite samples AZA-3 and AZA, which were both collected at the height of 1.

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Stem III grew simultaneously from the point of maximum age toward the exterior by 0. Because we neglected the age errors, these values must be considered as rather approximate.

Jan 13, The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern ojasjobz.coml wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. Proceedings of the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference, edited by A J T Jull RADIOCARBON, Vol 52, Nr , , p - FIRE HISTORY OF A GIANT AFRICAN BAOBAB EVINCED BY RADIOCARBON DATING Adrian Patrut1,2 Diana H Mayne3 Karl F von Reden4,5 Daniel A Lowy6 Robert van Pelt7 . The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of by: 2.

The corresponding growth rates from the point of maximum age varied between 0. One can also observe that stem III of Anzapalivoro started growing from an area of maximum age with comparable rates toward the interior and the exterior over the first - yr, after which the growth rates exhibited a decrease toward the interior and a considerable increase toward the exterior.

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We already stated that the identification of complex and very unusual architectures of old baobabs, such as the closed ring-shaped structures with false cavities, the determination of stem ages and growth rates, mandatory requires the use of AMS radiocarbon dating of wood samples collected from determined positions. In such cases, ring counting and ring width analysis are not effective.

According to our research, in the case of baobabs with closed ring-shaped structures, the number of rings between two dated segments is typically lower than the calendar age determined by radiocarbon dating.

Usually, this difference increases with the age of the tree, i. In addition, one should consider the existence of hollow parts and the ultimate growth stop phenomenon, identified by us for old stems [ 111617 ].

In the case of Anzapalivoro, the sample AZA-3, from which we dated 5 tiny segments, can be divided into 5 smaller sample parts, which are delimited by the dated segments. For a given sample part, the ratio of counted rings vs. The age of the Big cistern za can be determined from the dated segment of sample BCZ, which originates from the largest stem which includes the cistern. The diametre of this stem in the sampling direction, at sampling height 2. The sampling point in the hollow part is only 0.

The calibrated age of segment BCZ, i. The research presents the results of the AMS radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest known A. In addition, we investigated the Big cistern za, a large baobab with a human-made hollow used for water storage. The two representative za baobabs are located in Southwestern Madagascar. One additional sample was collected from the large inner cavity. Several segments extracted from these samples at determined distances were radiocarbon dated.

For the cavity samples, dating results demonstrate a continuous increase of ages with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. In prior work we identified this major anomaly in age sequences of cavity samples for large and old A.

The only reasonable explanation for this age anomaly is that such inner cavities are in fact false cavities, i. The dating results and the investigation of Anzapalivoro indicate that it consists of 5 perfectly fused stems, which build a closed ring-shaped structure with a false cavity inside.

These stems belong to three different generations which are between and yr old. According to age sequences of samples, each stem started growing from an area of maximum age with comparable rates toward the interior and the exterior, after which the growth rates underwent a decrease toward the interior and a consistent increase toward the exterior. The dating results indicate that the age of the second investigated specimen, the Big cistern za, which consists of 4 partially fused stems, is close to yr.

The investigation of Anzapalivoro, which has a special architecture with a high symmetry, suggests that the upper age limit of the A. Our research indicates, however, that the oldest trees of Madagascar belong to other baobab species, namely A. Authors thank Emilson Rakotoarisoa, Wilfred Ramahafaly and Lucien Rasoanaivoson for support in the investigation and sampling of baobabs.

AP received the full funding. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Read article at publisher's site DOI : To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

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Free full text. PLoS One. Published online Jan PMID: Lowy6 and Karl F. Roxana T. Daniel A. Karl F. John P.

African baobab. The research is based on our approach which also allows to investigate and date standing and live specimens. This approach involves the AMS radiocarbon dating of small wood samples collected from inner cavities and/or from deep incisions/entrances in the stems, fractured stems and from the outer part/exterior of large baobabs [8,9].Author: Adrian Patrut, Sebastien Garnaud, Oumar Ka, Roxana T. Patrut, Tomas Diagne, Daniel A. Lowy, Edit For. Dec 03, Radiocarbon dating proved that the Glencoe baobab, which was thought to be the stoutest tree in the world, was over 1, years old. The Sunland baobab was so wide that its hollow trunk was able to host a wine cellar and bar. In late , Grootboom, probably the largest known African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.), collapsed unexpectedly in northeastern Namibia. Ten wood samples collected from different areas of the trunk were processed and investigated by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon by:

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Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Sep 11; Accepted Dec This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Go to:. Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Map of Madagascar showing the large distribution area of Adansonia za and the location of the two investigated baobabs, Reakala and Analave in the southern Toliara province. Ethical statement The investigation and sampling of the baobabs was authorised by the Forestry Direction of the Ministry of Environment, Ecology and Forestry of Madagascar and by the Madagascar National Parks.

The baobabs and their area Anzapalivoro in Mahafaly, i. Fig 2. Fig 3. Another image of Anzapalivoro, which rises from a field of cacti, showing its big trunk and the large branches.

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Fig 4. The entrance to the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro, photographed from the exterior a and from the interior b. Fig 5.

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